Anecdotal evidence is worth what you pay for it. That being said, my 11yr old cocker mix (rescue dog) was drinking excessively and having a few "accidents" before starting Renal Essentials. He is now still drinking quite a bit, but not as before and he has been able to wait to be let out. I'm sure he has early stage kidney failure (he's old) but this has been a relief to him, it would appear. Three stars because I cannot quantify results and the awful smoke flavor needs strong masking to make it palatable.