Pfizer Animal Health
Canine Coronavirus Vaccine
For use in dogs only
DESCRIPTION: Vanguard CV is for vaccination of healthy dogs 6 weeks of age or older as an aid in preventing canine coronaviral gastroenteritis caused by canine coronavirus (CCV). The product is a liquid preparation of inactivated CCV propagated on an established cell line with an adjuvant to enhance the immune response.
DISEASE DESCRIPTION: CCV causes enteric disease in susceptible dogs of all ages worldwide. Highly contagious, the virus is transmitted primarily through direct contact with infectious feces and may cause clinical enteritis within 1-4 days after exposure. Severity of disease may be exacerbated by concurrent infection with other agents or by environmental stress.1 Primary signs of CCV infection include depression, anorexia, fever, vomiting, and diarrhea. Frequency of vomiting usually diminishes within a day or 2 after onset of diarrhea, but diarrhea may linger through the course of infection, and stools occasionally may contain streaks of blood. Particularly in puppies, dehydration is a potentially life-threatening result of severe diarrhea with death loss occasionally occurring within 24-36 hours after onset of disease.2 With CCV infection most dogs remain afebrile or have subnormal body temperature, and leukopenia is rarely observed in uncomplicated cases.3
Laboratory procedures are frequently employed to differentiate CCV and canine parvovirus (CPV) infections due to their clinical similarities. Laboratory diagnosis based solely on hemagglutination (HA) tests, however, may not distinguish between the 2 agents because HA tests can yield positive results when either CCV or CPV is present, particularly at low levels of HA activity. The result may be a false positive diagnosis for either virus when in fact the other is the agent of disease. Initial widespread prevalence of CPV, combined with the ambiguities of the HA test, may have obscured the prevalence of CCV as a source of canine enteritides. Comprehensive protection thus requires vaccination for both CCV and CPV.
SAFETY AND EFFICACY: Safety of Vanguard CV was assessed in a field trial in which 5,999 doses were administered. Postvaccinal reactions occurred in 0.78% of vaccinates. Stinging and pain was observed in 0.08% of vaccinates, transient lameness or swelling was observed in 0.28% of vaccinates, anaphylaxis was observed in 0.12% of vaccinates, and gastroenteritis was observed in 0.30% of vaccinates.
Efficacy of Vanguard CV was demonstrated in a challenge-of-immunity study involving 20 vaccinated puppies and 10 controls. Twenty 6- to 7-week-old puppies received 1 dose of vaccine given by the subcutaneous route, followed by a second subcutaneous dose 21 days later. Vaccinates and controls were challenged with virulent CCV 21 days postvaccination. Puppies vaccinated with CCV demonstrated significant differences in reduction of clinical signs, virus shed, and reduction of diarrhea postchallenge when compared to the control group. There was a significant reduction of IFA detectable CCV antigen detected in the intestine at 19 days postchallenge in vaccinates compared to the control group. Serological responses of vaccinates were equal to or higher than the control group.
1. General Directions: Vaccination of healthy dogs is recommended. Shake well. Aseptically administer 1 mL subcutaneously or intramuscularly.
2. Primary Vaccination: Healthy dogs 6 weeks of age or older should receive 2 doses administered 2-3 weeks apart. If dogs are vaccinated before the age of 4 months, they should be revaccinated with a single dose upon reaching 4 months of age. (Maternal antibodies may interfere with development of an adequate immune response in puppies less than 4 months old.)
3. Revaccination: Annual revaccination with a single dose is recommended.
1. Store at 2°-7°C. Prolonged exposure to higher temperatures may adversely affect potency. Do not freeze.
2. Use entire contents when first opened.
3. Contains gentamicin as preservative.
4. Vaccination of pregnant bitches should be avoided.
5. As with many vaccines, anaphylaxis may occur after use. Initial antidote of epinephrine is recommended and should be followed with appropriate supportive therapy.
6. This product has been shown to be efficacious in healthy animals. A protective immune response may not be elicited if animals are incubating an infectious disease, are malnourished or parasitized, are stressed due to shipment or environmental conditions, are otherwise immunocompromised, or the vaccine is not administered in accordance with label directions.
1. Pollock RVH, Carmichael LE: Canine viral enteritis. Mod Vet Pract 60:375-380, 1979.
2. Appel M, et al: Canine viral enteritis. Canine Pract 7:22-34, 1980.
3. Carmichael LE, Binn LN: New enteric viruses in the dog. Advances in Vet Sci and Comp Med 25:1-35, 1981.
Technical inquiries should be directed to Pfizer Animal Health Veterinary Services, (800) 366-5288 (USA), (800) 461-0917 (Canada).
For veterinary use only
U.S. Veterinary License No. 189
Pfizer Animal Health, Exton, PA 19341, USA, Div. of Pfizer Inc, NY, NY 10017
Presentation: Cartons of 50 x 1 dose vials of vaccine.
NAC No.: 36901112